Electronic game, also called computer game or video game, any interactive game operated by computer circuitry. The machines, or “platforms,” on which electronic games are played include general-purpose shared and personal computers, arcade consoles, video consoles connected to home television sets, handheld game machines, mobile devices such as cellular phones, and server-based networks. The term video game can be used to represent the totality of these formats, or it can refer more specifically only to games played on devices with video displays: television and arcade consoles.The idea of playing games on computers is almost as old as the computer itself. Initially, the payoffs expected from this activity were closely related to the study of computation. For example, the mathematician and engineer Claude Shannon proposed in 1950 that computers could be programmed to play chess, and he questioned whether this would mean that a computer could think. Shannon’s proposal stimulated decades of research on chess- and checkers-playing programs, generally by computer scientists working in the field of artificial intelligence.

Many computer games grew out of university and industrial computer laboratories. Several historically important games functioned originally as technology demonstrations, after having been developed as “after hours” amusements by students and technical staff. For example, in 1958 William A. Higinbotham of the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York used an analog computer, control boxes, and an oscilloscope to create Tennis for Two as part of a public display for visitors to the laboratory. Only a few years later Steve Russell, Alan Kotok, J. Martin Graetz, and others created Spacewar! (1962) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This game began as a demonstration  สล็อต program to show off the PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) minicomputer donated by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to MIT and the new Precision CRT Display Type 30 attached to it. This new technology appealed to the “hacker” culture of the Tech Model Railroad Club on campus, and its authors were members of this group. They wrote software and built control boxes that gave players the ability to move spaceships about on accurate star maps, maneuvering and firing space torpedoes at each other. Spacewar! was distinctly a product of MIT computing.

The widespread adoption of the PDP line of minicomputers on other campuses and laboratories in the 1960s and ’70s made Spacewar! a ubiquitous part of computing culture. One such institution was the University of Utah, home of a strong program in computer graphics and an electrical engineering student named Nolan Bushnell. After graduating in 1968, Bushnell moved to Silicon Valley to work for the Ampex Corporation. Bushnell had worked at an amusement park during college and after playing Spacewar! he dreamed of filling entertainment arcades with such electronic games. Together with one of his coworkers at Ampex, Ted Dabney, Bushnell designed Computer Space (1971), a coin-operated version of Spacewar! set in a wildly futuristic arcade cabinet. Although the game—manufactured and marketed by Nutting Associates, a vendor of coin-operated arcades—was a commercial failure, it established a standard design and general technical configuration for arcade consoles.

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